Welcome to Sreelatha Fertility (IVF) Centre

Talk to Our Expert +91 8682 245359 | +91 888 666 9896 Apply Now
Sreelatha Fertility (IVF) Centre

Ultrasonography and Doppler

Ultrasound in infertility: Ultrasound in infertility has main role in demonstration of the pelvic organs (uterus, Fallopian tube, ovary) and vascular structures.

  1. Demonstration of growing ovarian follicles (Measurement of their numbers and sizes).
  2. Demonstration of intrafollicular structures (Cumulus oöphorus, Corpus luteum).
  3. Demonstration of cyclic uterine endometrial changes.

The detection of ovulation is very important in the treatment of infertility. Nowadays ultrasound is an accepted method in the diagnostic procedures, and it permits the visualization of the position and size of the uterus, Fallopian tubes and ovaries, the exclusion of genital anomalies and the demonstration of physiological changes of these organs during the menstrual cycle.

USG useful in measuring Ovarian size, and their land marks such as the ovarian artery, average ovarian blood flow. Repeated sonologic examination in hormone stimulated cycles with ovulation induction, their changes, average diameter of the growing follicle. Ultrasound is an important aid in predicting the time of ovulation more accurately endometrial thickeness. Ultrasound plays a role in egg collection and replacement of the embryofollicular study with timely uterine , ovarian status evaluation with subsequent fertility measures.

Ultrasound in Obstetrics:

Obstetric ultrasound can provide a variety of information about the health of the mother, the timing and progress of the pregnancy, and the health and development of the embryo or fetus.

First trimester (first 3 months)

In the first trimester, a standard ultrasound examination typically includes:

  1. Gestational sac size, location, and number
  2. Identification of the embryo and/or yolk sac
  3. Measurement of fetal length (known as the crown-rump length)
  4. Fetal number, including number of amnionic sacs and chorionic sacs for multiple gestations
  5. Embryonic/fetal cardiac activity
  6. Assessment of embryonic/fetal anatomy appropriate for the first trimester
  7. Evaluation of the maternal uterus, tubes, ovaries, and surrounding structures
  8. Evaluation of the fetal nuchal fold, with consideration of fetal nuchal translucency assessment

Second and third trimester

In the second trimester, a standard ultrasound exam typically includes:

  1. Fetal number, including number of amnionic sacs and chorionic sacs for multiple gestations
  2. Fetal cardiac activity
  3. Fetal position relative to the uterus and cervix
  4. Location and appearance of the placenta, including site of umbilical cord insertion when possible
  5. Amnionic fluid volume
  6. Gestational age assessment
  7. Fetal weight estimation
  8. Fetal anatomical survey (TFFA)
  9. Evaluation of the maternal uterus, tubes, ovaries, and surrounding structures when appropriate

Also useful in

  1. Dating and growth monitoring
  2. Length of cervix - shorter the cervix the greater the risk (At 24 weeks' gestation a cervix length of less than 25 mm defines a risk group for preterm birth)
  3. Scar thickness (previous CS cases) prediction of uterine rupture
  4. Complication assessment and changes in GDM/Hypertension/ eclampsia

Ultrasound in Gynaecology:

application of medical ultrasonography to the female pelvic organs (specifically the uterus, the ovaries, and the Fallopian tubes) as well as the bladder, the adnexa, and the Pouch of Douglas. Examination can be performed by transabdominal ultrasonography, generally with a full bladder which acts as an acoustic window to achieve better visualization of pelvis organs, or by transvaginal ultrasonography with a specifically designed vaginal transducer.

Transvaginal imaging utilizes a higher frequency imaging, which gives better resolution of the ovaries, uterus and endometrium (the fallopian tubes are generally not seen unless distended), but is limited to depth of image penetration, whereas larger lesions reaching into the abdomen are better seen transabdominally. Having a full bladder for the transabdominal portion of the exam is helpful because sound travels through fluid with less attenuation to better visualize the uterus and ovaries which lies posteriorly to the bladder. The procedure is by definition invasive when performed transvaginally.

Ultrasound in male infertility:

Ultrasonography - Doppler is commonly utilized in the evaluation and diagnosis of male-factor infertility and functions as an adjunctive method for use with assisted reproductive techniques.

Scrotal and transrectal ultrasonographies assist in differentiating various etiologies for infertility including infectious, benign, and malignant processes of the epididymis, testicle, prostate, and seminal vesicles, varicocoeles as well as visualising secondary changes caused by distal genital duct obstruction.

Ultrasonography helps to differentiate between obstructive and nonobstructive oligo-/azoospermia and may identify conditions associated with infertility including renal anomalies and testicular malignancies.

Dr Sreelatha