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Ultrasound in infertility: Ultrasound in infertility has main role in demonstration of the pelvic organs (uterus, Fallopian tube, ovary) and vascular structures.
The detection of ovulation is very important in the treatment of infertility. Nowadays ultrasound is an accepted method in the diagnostic procedures, and it permits the visualization of the position and size of the uterus, Fallopian tubes and ovaries, the exclusion of genital anomalies and the demonstration of physiological changes of these organs during the menstrual cycle.
USG useful in measuring Ovarian size, and their land marks such as the ovarian artery, average ovarian blood flow. Repeated sonologic examination in hormone stimulated cycles with ovulation induction, their changes, average diameter of the growing follicle. Ultrasound is an important aid in predicting the time of ovulation more accurately endometrial thickeness. Ultrasound plays a role in egg collection and replacement of the embryofollicular study with timely uterine , ovarian status evaluation with subsequent fertility measures.
Obstetric ultrasound can provide a variety of information about the health of the mother, the timing and progress of the pregnancy, and the health and development of the embryo or fetus.
In the first trimester, a standard ultrasound examination typically includes:
In the second trimester, a standard ultrasound exam typically includes:
application of medical ultrasonography to the female pelvic organs (specifically the uterus, the ovaries, and the Fallopian tubes) as well as the bladder, the adnexa, and the Pouch of Douglas. Examination can be performed by transabdominal ultrasonography, generally with a full bladder which acts as an acoustic window to achieve better visualization of pelvis organs, or by transvaginal ultrasonography with a specifically designed vaginal transducer.
Transvaginal imaging utilizes a higher frequency imaging, which gives better resolution of the ovaries, uterus and endometrium (the fallopian tubes are generally not seen unless distended), but is limited to depth of image penetration, whereas larger lesions reaching into the abdomen are better seen transabdominally. Having a full bladder for the transabdominal portion of the exam is helpful because sound travels through fluid with less attenuation to better visualize the uterus and ovaries which lies posteriorly to the bladder. The procedure is by definition invasive when performed transvaginally.
Ultrasonography - Doppler is commonly utilized in the evaluation and diagnosis of male-factor infertility and functions as an adjunctive method for use with assisted reproductive techniques.
Scrotal and transrectal ultrasonographies assist in differentiating various etiologies for infertility including infectious, benign, and malignant processes of the epididymis, testicle, prostate, and seminal vesicles, varicocoeles as well as visualising secondary changes caused by distal genital duct obstruction.
Ultrasonography helps to differentiate between obstructive and nonobstructive oligo-/azoospermia and may identify conditions associated with infertility including renal anomalies and testicular malignancies.